• Souza, I. E. (2018). The Interpreter as a Cultural Agent: The Cultural Role of Interpreters Over Time. In O. Seel (Ed.), Redefining Translation and Interpretation in Cultural Evolution (pp. 220-237). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-2832-6.ch012

  • Souza, I. E. (2018) The Importance of Formal Education for Medical Interpreters, based on older article published in 1997, MMIA Newsletter, Fall 1997, Vol. 3


  • ​Arocha, I. S., Bendana, L.(2013). Interpreting Culture Multilingual Computing, Inc. Selkirk Mountains, North Idaho.

Diagrams of her research with explanations will be made available upon request.
Dr. Souza authorizes use of such diagrams for educational purposes. No written authorization is required. Diagrams are available but may not be changed. Contact Dr. Souza directly at info@drsouza.org for her to send you the pertinent diagrams.



Izabel E. T. de V. Souza, M.Ed, CMI-Sp, Ph.D.
Intercultural Communication Expert
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